SØRVEST-ASIA I BILDER OG FILM

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  • Sørvest Asia – før og nå

    Den fruktbare halvmåne er en betegnelse på et gammelt fruktbart område nord og øst for den arabiske ørken og Mesopotamia og langs Middelhavet i Sørvest-Asia. Ofte regnes også Mesopotamia-dalen og Nil-dalen under dette begrepet, men i jordbrukshistorisk forstand er fjellsonen rundt Mesopotamia en naturlig avgrensning.

    Som resultat av en rekke unike geografiske faktorer har Den fruktbare halvmåne en imponerende historie av tidlig menneskelig jordbruksaktivitet og kulturdanning.

    Foruten mange arkeologiske funnsteder med rester av skjeletter og kulturelle levninger både fra førmoderne (Homo neanderthalensis) og tidlig moderne mennesker (Homo Sapiens) , eksempelvis Kebarahulen i Israel, med senere jeger- og samlerkulturer i Pleistocen-tiden og delvis fastboende jegere og samlere i Mesolitikum-tiden (natuferne), så er området først og fremst kjent for dets funnsteder knyttet til jordbrukets opprinnelse og utvikling i Neolittikum.

    Det var her, i de skogkledde fjellskråningene i randsonen av dette området – i Israel, Libanon, Syria, Tyrkia, nordlige Irak og nordvestre Iran – at jordbruket oppsto i et økologisk avgrenset miljø. Den vestlige sonen og områdene rundt øvre Eufrat ga vekst til de første kjente neolittiske jordbruks-samfunnene med små, runde hus (ofte referert til som førkeramisk neolittisk A, som dateres til like etter 10.000 f.vt. og omfatter steder som Jeriko, som er verdens eldste by.

    Under den påfølgende PPNB fra 9 000 f.vt. utvikler disse samfunnene seg til større landsbyer med dyrking og husdyrhold som viktigste levevei, med tett bebyggelse i to-etasjers, rektangulære hus. Mennesket inngikk nå i symbiose med korn- og husdyrartene, uten mulighet til å vende tilbake til jeger- og sankersamfunnet.

    Området vest og nord for slettelandet ved Eufrat og Tigris så også framveksten av tidlige komplekse samfunn i den langt senere bronsealderen (fra ca 4 000 f.vt.). Det er også tidlige bevis for skriftkultur og tidlige statsdannelser fra samme tid i dette nordlige steppeområdet, selv om de skriftlige statsdannelsene relativt raskt flyttet sitt tyngdepunkt ned i Mesopotamia-dalen og utviklet seg der. Området har derfor hos svært mange forfattere fått betegnelsen «sivilisasjonens vugge».

    Området har opplevd en rekke omveltninger, og nye stasdannelser. Nå sist da staten Tyrkia ble dannet i etterkant av ungtyrkernes folkemord på blant annet de pontiske grekere, armenere og assyrere under den første verdenskrig. Det antas at to tredeler til tre firedeler av alle armenere i regionen døde.

    Det er nå på tide at folkemordet mot de pontiske grekere, assyrere og armenere anerkjennes, at Israels okkupasjon, bosetting og vold palestinerne opphører, samt at de ulike minoritetene i området får leve sine livi fred - uten vold og trusler fra majoritetsbefolkninger eller fra Vesten, og da spesifikt USA.

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Sivilisasjon eller postsivilisasjon

Her fødtes sivilisasjonen VÅR:

civilisation

Gudinnekulturen

– Alle ga etter evne og fikk etter behov:

halaf84

cybele

Khabur/Balikh – Det øvre Eufrat:

Slide16

Göbekli Tepe:

165626770_bf1c6d02fb_o

Spredning av jordbruk:

Slide02

Spredning av handel:

civilizationbc

Urkesh musikk

Archatlas

Noas barn

First Legend – The Tree of Life

Slik er det i dag:

civilization3

civilizationast

civilizationdisaster

civilizationmm

CHINA-DROUGHT-RESERVOIR

civilizationpacific

civilizationnIce

Symbolsk:

civilizationcrash

civilisationnic

The-Four-Horsemen-Of-The-Apocalypse,-1887

Guardian Survivalism

civilization258

civilizationf2

Kampen nedenfra?

Pillar10-

pillarrevolution

civilisationas

CS006436

civilisationrn

civilizationrs

”A Civilization is a society or culture group normally defined as a complex society characterized by the practice of agriculture and settlement in towns and cities. Compared with other cultures, members of a civilization are commonly organized into a diverse division of labor and an intricate social hierarchy.”

Mission Civilisatrice (the French for Civilisatory mission) is a rationale for intervention or colonisation, proposing to contribute to the spread of civilization, mostly amounting to the Westernization of indigenous peoples.

It was notably the underlying principle of French and Portuguese colonial rule in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It was influential in the French colonies of Algeria, French West Africa, and Indochina, and in the Portuguese colonies of Angola, Guinea, Mozambique and Timor. The European colonial powers felt it was their duty to bring Western civilization to supposedly backwards peoples. Rather than merely govern colonial peoples, the Europeans would attempt to Westernize them in accordance with a colonial ideology known as assimilation.”

Civilized_core refers to the four advanced civilizations that emerged during the 1st millennium BC, during the earlier Iron Age after the collapse of the Bronze Age civilizations that preceded them.

These were, in no particular order, the civilizations of:

Zhou China, culminating in the Han Empire in the 3rd century BCE

Mesopotamia (Babylonia and Assyria), culminating in the unified Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC

Iron Age India, the Mahajanapadas culminating in the Maurya Empire in the 4th century BC

The Mediterranean, developing from scattered Phoenician settlements to the emergence of Ancient Greece in the 7th century BC and culminating in the Hellenistic civilization in the 4th century BC, by the 3rd century BC streching its influence throughout the Mesopotamian and into the Indian sphere.”

”German philosopher Karl Jaspers coined the term the Axial Age to describe the period from 800 BC to 200 BC, during which, according to Jaspers, similar revolutionary thinking appeared in China, India and the Occident. The period is also sometimes referred to as the Axis Age.

Jaspers, in his Vom Ursprung und Ziel der Geschichte (The Origin and Goal of History), identified a number of key axial age thinkers as having had a profound influence on future philosophy and religion, and identified characteristics common to each area from which those thinkers emerged. Jaspers saw in these developments in religion and philosophy a striking parallel without any obvious direct transmission of ideas from one region to the other, having found no recorded proof of any extensive intercommunication between Ancient Greece, the Middle East, India, and China. Jaspers held up this age as unique, and one to which the rest of the history of human thought might be compared. Jaspers’ approach to the culture of the middle of the first millennium BC has been adopted by other scholars and academics, and has become a point of discussion in the history of religion.”

”The Mountains of Ararat is the place named in the Book of Genesis where Noah’s ark came to rest after the great flood (Genesis 8:4). Abrahamic tradition associates the mountains of Ararat with Mount Ararat in present day Turkey.”

”The Neolithic Revolution was the first agricultural revolution – the transition from hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement (settlement is currently being questioned). Archaeological data indicate that various forms of domestication of plants and animals arose independently in at least 7-8 separate locales worldwide, with the earliest known developments taking place in the South West Asia around 10,000 BC (BCE) or earlier.

However, the Neolithic Revolution involved far more than the adoption of a limited set of food-producing techniques. During the next millennia it would transform the small, mobile and fairly egalitarian groups of hunter-gatherers that had hitherto dominated human history, into sedentary societies based in built-up villages and towns, which radically modified their natural environment by means of specialized cultivation and storage technologies (e.g. irrigation) that allowed extensive surplus production. These developments provided the basis for high population densities, complex labor diversification, trading economies, centralized administrations and political structures, hiearchical ideologies and depersonalized systems of knowledge (e.g. property regimes and writing). The first full-blown manifestation of the entire Neolithic complex is seen in the Middle Eastern Sumerian cities (ca. 5,300 BC), whose emergence also inaugurates the end of the prehistoric Neolithic and the beginning of historical time.

The relationship of the above-mentioned Neolithic characteristics to the onset of agriculture, their sequence of emergence and empirical relation to each other at various Neolithic sites remains the subject of academic debate, and seems to vary from place to place, rather than being the outcome of universal laws of social evolution.”

Origins, Age, Spread and Ethnic Association of European Haplogroups_and Subclades

An Uruk World-System?

The Birth of Global Trade

History of the Levant

Neolithic Revolution

Kebarans

Natufians

Çatal höyük

Khabur

Tell_Halaf

Urkesh

Sumer

Civilization has been criticized from a variety of viewpoints and for a variety of reasons. Some critics have objected to all aspects of civilization; others have argued that civilization brings a mixture of good and bad effects.

Some environmentalists like Derrick Jensen criticize civilizations for their exploitation of the environment. Richard Hienberg argues that through intensive agriculture and urban growth, civilizations tend to destroy natural settings and habitats, and deplete the resources on which it depends. This is sometimes referred to as “dominator culture”. Proponents of this view believe that traditional societies live in greater harmony with nature than civilizations; people work with nature rather than try to subdue it. The sustainable living movement is a push from some members of civilization to regain that harmony with nature.

Primitivism is a modern philosophy totally opposed to civilization. Primitivists accuse civilizations of restricting human potential, oppressing the weak, and damaging the environment. They wish to return to a more primitive way of life which they consider to be in the best interests of both nature and human beings. Leading proponents are John Zerzan and Derrick Jensen, whereas a critic is Roger Sandall.

However, not all critics of past and present civilization believe that a primitive way of life is better. Some have argued that many negative aspects of current ‘civilized’ nations can be overcome. Karl Marx, for instance, argued that the beginning of civilization was the beginning of oppression and exploitation, but also believed that these things would eventually be overcome and communism would be established throughout the world. He envisioned communism not as a return to any sort of idyllic past, but as a new stage of civilization. Conflict theory in the social sciences also views the present form of civilization as being based on the domination of some people by others, but does not judge the issue morally.

”Given the current problems with the sustainability of industrial civilization, some, like Derrick Jensen, who posits civilization to be inherently unsustainable, argue that we need to develop a social form of post-civilization as different from civilization as the latter was with pre-civilized peoples.”

” Vad vill dagens radikala tänkare? Medan flera av dem nu möts på European Social Forum i Malmö berättar Thomas Anderberg om en av den samtida filosofins mer udda och beryktade figurer. John_Zerzan menar att all utveckling är av ondo.”

Avskaffa språket

Anarcho-primitivism

Green anarchism

Neo-Tribalism

Green Anarchy

Surplus

Fifth Estate

civilizationdbb12c

civilization0wi

civilization01

civilization per

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