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  • Sørvest Asia – før og nå

    Den fruktbare halvmåne er en betegnelse på et gammelt fruktbart område nord og øst for den arabiske ørken og Mesopotamia og langs Middelhavet i Sørvest-Asia. Ofte regnes også Mesopotamia-dalen og Nil-dalen under dette begrepet, men i jordbrukshistorisk forstand er fjellsonen rundt Mesopotamia en naturlig avgrensning.

    Som resultat av en rekke unike geografiske faktorer har Den fruktbare halvmåne en imponerende historie av tidlig menneskelig jordbruksaktivitet og kulturdanning.

    Foruten mange arkeologiske funnsteder med rester av skjeletter og kulturelle levninger både fra førmoderne (Homo neanderthalensis) og tidlig moderne mennesker (Homo Sapiens) , eksempelvis Kebarahulen i Israel, med senere jeger- og samlerkulturer i Pleistocen-tiden og delvis fastboende jegere og samlere i Mesolitikum-tiden (natuferne), så er området først og fremst kjent for dets funnsteder knyttet til jordbrukets opprinnelse og utvikling i Neolittikum.

    Det var her, i de skogkledde fjellskråningene i randsonen av dette området – i Israel, Libanon, Syria, Tyrkia, nordlige Irak og nordvestre Iran – at jordbruket oppsto i et økologisk avgrenset miljø. Den vestlige sonen og områdene rundt øvre Eufrat ga vekst til de første kjente neolittiske jordbruks-samfunnene med små, runde hus (ofte referert til som førkeramisk neolittisk A, som dateres til like etter 10.000 f.vt. og omfatter steder som Jeriko, som er verdens eldste by.

    Under den påfølgende PPNB fra 9 000 f.vt. utvikler disse samfunnene seg til større landsbyer med dyrking og husdyrhold som viktigste levevei, med tett bebyggelse i to-etasjers, rektangulære hus. Mennesket inngikk nå i symbiose med korn- og husdyrartene, uten mulighet til å vende tilbake til jeger- og sankersamfunnet.

    Området vest og nord for slettelandet ved Eufrat og Tigris så også framveksten av tidlige komplekse samfunn i den langt senere bronsealderen (fra ca 4 000 f.vt.). Det er også tidlige bevis for skriftkultur og tidlige statsdannelser fra samme tid i dette nordlige steppeområdet, selv om de skriftlige statsdannelsene relativt raskt flyttet sitt tyngdepunkt ned i Mesopotamia-dalen og utviklet seg der. Området har derfor hos svært mange forfattere fått betegnelsen «sivilisasjonens vugge».

    Området har opplevd en rekke omveltninger, og nye stasdannelser. Nå sist da staten Tyrkia ble dannet i etterkant av ungtyrkernes folkemord på blant annet de pontiske grekere, armenere og assyrere under den første verdenskrig. Det antas at to tredeler til tre firedeler av alle armenere i regionen døde.

    Det er nå på tide at folkemordet mot de pontiske grekere, assyrere og armenere anerkjennes, at Israels okkupasjon, bosetting og vold palestinerne opphører, samt at de ulike minoritetene i området får leve sine livi fred - uten vold og trusler fra majoritetsbefolkninger eller fra Vesten, og da spesifikt USA.

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Det østlige Anatolia

Roman, Byzantine, and Seljuq rule » The Seljuqs of Anatolia » Origins and ascendancy

As early as the 10th century, irregular groups of Turkmen warriors (also called Oğuz, Ghuzz, or Oghuz), originally from Central Asia, began to move into Azerbaijan and to encroach upon the Armenian principalities of Vaspurakan, Taik, and Ani along the easternmost border of the Byzantine Empire. Armenian historians of this period speak of their adversaries as “. . . long-haired Turkmens armed with bow and lance on horses which flew like the wind . . . .” The Armenian princes appealed to Constantinople for protection from these forays, and in 1000 the emperor Basil II (ruled 976–1025) annexed the domains of David of Taik. In 1021 the ruler of Vaspurakan ceded his lands to Basil because he was unable to withstand the Turkmen incursions; the following year, Sempad of Ani handed his principality over to the emperor on the condition that he be allowed to continue to rule until his death, and Ani was subsequently conquered outright by the Byzantines in 1045. These attempts by the Byzantines to reorganize their eastern frontier doubtless weakened their defenses and may have ultimately brought about the total collapse of the empire.

For the Great Seljuq sultans—themselves Turkmens who had established a vast polity based in the Iranian plateau—these lawless elements posed a threat to the stability of their state. By diverting their aggressions into Anatolia, the sultans prevented depredations in Muslim territories, increased their own power against the Byzantine Empire, and provided land and livelihood for the Turkmen warriors. On occasion, the Great Seljuq sultans Toghrïl Beg (1038–63) and Alp-Arslan (1063–72) or their close relatives led these expeditions in person. Beginning in the 1040s, Anatolia was subjected to periodic Turkmen raids for nearly 30 years, some reaching as far west as Sivas (Sebastea) and Konya (Iconium). These offensives culminated in the decisive Battle of Manzikert north of Lake Van on Aug. 26, 1071, in which the Turkmen forces under Alp-Arslan vanquished the Byzantine army and captured the emperor Romanus IV Diogenes. With the frontier completely shattered, the Turkmens were able to range over most of Anatolia virtually at will.

In the eastern and central regions, the earliest settlements were those of the Mangūjakids, who came to exercise control over Divriği (Tephrike), Erzincan (Keltzine), and Kemah (Camcha) until 1252; the Saltuqids, who ruled in Erzurum (Theodosiopolis) until 1201; and, most importantly, the Dānishmendids, who were centred in Sivas, Kayseri (Caesarea Cappadociae), and Amasya (Amaseia) until 1177. In western Anatolia another important chieftain was Sulaymān, the son of Qutalmïsh, a distant cousin of the ruling Great Seljuq sultan Malik-Shāh (1072–92), who had succeeded his father Alp-Arslan. About 1075, Sulaymān captured Nicaea (İznik) and Nicomedia (İzmit), threatening Constantinople. This prompted the new emperor Michael VII Ducas (1071–78) to appeal to Pope Gregory VII for aid against the invaders, promising in return his support for the reunification of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches. Sulaymān’s activities also attracted the concern of Malik-Shāh, who attempted unsuccessfully to dislodge his kinsman on several occasions. However, after making Nicaea his capital and renaming it İznik, about 1080 Sulaymān assumed the title “sultan” in defiance of Malik-Shāh, an event generally accepted as marking the beginning of independent Seljuq rule in Anatolia—known as Rūm (“Rome”—i.e., the eastern Roman Empire). He spent the next several years expanding his holdings to the east and to the south and finally was killed at Antioch (Antakya) in 1086 by his relative Tutush of the Syrian branch of the Seljuqs, who was loyal to Malik-Shāh.


MLA Style:

“Anatolia.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 22 Aug. 2009


APA Style:

Anatolia. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 22, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online:







North-Eastern Turkey


Trabzon, ancient Trebizond, is famous for its port on the Black Sea coast, its catch of anchovies, its ability to survive numerous invasions, and its Christian population in Ottoman times. The surrounding countryside is amazingly green and hilly, and tea and hazelnuts grow in abundance. The best example of the traditional type of house of the region is the house where Ataturk used to stay. The best church is Haghia Sofya (Aya Sofya or Church of The Divine Wisdom) built between 1238 and 1263. It combines both Christian and Muslim architectural trends and has some of the most outstanding Byzantine frescos in the world. It was restored under the supervision of David Talbot Rice and David Winfield.

Sumela Monastery

The name Sumela is an abbreviated corruption of the Greek Panayia tou Melas meaning Monastery of the Black Virgin. In 385 a monk called Barnabas arrived with the famous icon of the Virgin painted by the apostle Luke, and after a visitation he placed the icon on a shrine in a cave high up a sheer cliff face. The monastery developed on this spot in the 6th century, with more additions in the 13th and 14th centuries. In Byzantine times, the Comneni emperors from Trebizond held their coronations here rather than in Constantinople. The Orthodox priests only left in 1923, under the exchange of populations agreed in the Treaty of Lausanne, taking their icon with them. What they couldn’t take, however, were all the incredible frescos that cover the walls. The walk up to Sumela follows a pleasantly shaded zigzagging path.


Uzungol, or Long Lake, 99km from Trabzon and 1,090 meters above sea level, is a beautiful lake where you can see some of the wonderful timber houses common in the region. It is a good site for a picnic or barbecue, and it is possible to go trekking to the nearby peaks and glacier lakes.


The road leading inland to Ayder (1,300m) is one of the most scenic and passes through the village of Chamlihemshin and Storm Valley, where you will see the quaint traditional narrow stone bridges of the region. Zilkale Castle is nearby. Once at Ayder, you can take advantage of the thermal baths which are good for skin problems and rheumatism as well as sheer relaxation. The countryside is spectacular, and hikes in the Central Khatchkar Mountains are a good way to work off all that home-made local pastry! There are many trekking routes and if you’re interested a longer stay can be arranged.


Rize has such dense vegetation that one can see every possible shade of green. Rize is synonymous with tea, which was introduced here at the start of the last century, and has a Tea Institute where you can see the plants and taste the best teas. The hills around, which are covered with tea bushes, are also the home of the famous Anzer honey. If you are traveling on to Eastern Turkey, a winding road with spectacular scenery leads to Erzurum through the highest drivable pass in the Pontic ranges.

Eastern Turkey


Erzurum is on a high plateau nearly 2,000 meters up. It was ruled by many civilizations including Byzantines, Armenians, Arabs, Seljuks, Mongols, Ottomans and Russians. The way up to the castle passes some of the oldest houses, and the best view of the city can be had from the ramparts. The Great Mosque, Ulu Cami, built in 1179 by the Saltuk (Turkish) Emir, has an unusual wooden dome. The 13th century Chifte Minareli Medrese, or Twin Minaret Seminary, the largest of its time, is known for its elaborate stone carvings. Not far away in a picturesque quarter is Uch Kumbetler, or Three Tombs, which dates from the early 12th century and has some nice decorations. Erzurum is one of Turkey’s most important ski resorts, renowned for its long skiing season and excellent slopes.


Kars, once a flourishing city founded by the Armenians, has a checkered history. It was taken by Seljuks, Mongols, Tamerlaine, Ottomans and Russians before being given back to Turkey by Lenin and Trotsky. Today it is famous for its cheese, carpets and felt. The Cathedral of the Apostles, built by the Armenian King Abbas in 937, was converted into a mosque only 100 years after its construction. The nearby Tash Kopru, or Stone Bridge, is made of the same volcanic rock as the church. The castle, destroyed and rebuilt by the Russians, is open as a park with good views of the city. The museum has an interesting ethnographic section (this region is famous for its kilims and carpets), some ancient pottery and the bell and doors from the cathedral.


Ani, which succeeded Kars as the capital of Bagratid Armenia, was once a very wealthy city with a population of 100,000 and was known as the city of 1001 churches. Today, having been deserted for over 300 years, it is a huge open-air museum of the finest Armenian architecture. The Lion Gate was added by the Seljuk leader Alp Arslan, and there are many churches and mosques to explore. The Church of the Redeemer (1036) was cut in half by lightening in 1957. The Church of Saint Gregory the Illuminator (1215) is the best preserved one, with animals in relief on the outside and beautiful frescos on the inside, and some of the scenes depicted, such as the life of Saint Anne, the mother of the Virgin Mary, originate from apocryphal texts which were part of the Armenian Bible. The largest of Ani’s buildings is the Cathedral of the Apostles (1010), and it is unusually positioned on a north-south axis so that light would flood the church only at midday. Menucehir Mosque (1072), said to be the earliest Seljuk mosque in Anatolia, was possibly a former Armenian palace.


The road to Dogubeyazit passes through the foothills of the extinct volcano, Mount Ararat, which at 5,165 meters is the highest point in Europe. According to Christian tradition, Noah’s Arc came to rest here when the flood subsided (Muslims believe the landing site was further south on Mount Judi). For Armenian monks, this permanently snow-capped mountain was sacred and climbing it was forbidden, and even today with its peak often hidden in cloud it still has a mystical aura. On the slopes of the mountain is the underground Ice Cave with beautiful stalagmites and stalactites, and 35km east of Dogubeyazit is a huge 60m deep and 35m wide crater left by a meteor impact in 1913. In this region, villagers migrate to the high plains every summer with their livestock, where they live in their traditional goat-hair tents.

Ishak Pasha Palace

This spectacular 17th century palace was built on a 2,000m high plateau by Ishak, an Ottoman governor, to imitate Topkapi Palace in Istanbul. Often referred to as the Taj Mahal of Turkey, this palace has 24 rooms devoted to the harem where the women and children lived a sheltered, protected and luxuriously centrally-heated life. The gold-plated doors may have been removed by the Russians, but they couldn’t carry of the beautiful tree-of-life motifs on the fountain in the inner courtyard. A 16th century mosque from the reign of Selim the Grim and an Urartian fortress can be seen in the distance.


Van was founded on the lake shore by the Urartian king Sarduri I in the 9th century BCE. The modern city, a few kilometers away, was rebuilt after World War I. At the Rock of Van, the ruins of the ancient Urartian citadel has many inscriptions in Assyrian cuneiform and Urartian hieroglyphics that have filled in many gaps in history, and the world’s best collection of Urartian artifacts can be seen in the museum in Van: Urartian gold jewellery, bronze belts and terracotta figures are accompanied by Mesolithic rock carvings (9,000-8,000 BCE) that remind one of Van’s prehistoric roots.

Lake Van is the world’s biggest alkaline lake (3,713km2), and is the largest lake of Turkey. It is so deep (1,646m) that locals believe a creature like the Loch Ness monster in Scotland lives in the depths; they call it Van Dam!


During Ani’s halcyon days, a separate Armenian state, Vaspurakan, flourished around Lake Van, and its greatest king, Gagig Artzruni, built a palace and monastery for himself on this island in 921. The only part remaining today is the Church of the Holy Cross. It is a wonderful example of Armenian church architecture: the outside walls are completely covered with awesome reliefs from the Old Testament such as Jonah and the Whale, Abraham and Isaac, and David and Goliath, as well as mythical animals and Armenian inscriptions.


Chavushtepe, 22km SE of Van, is the site of the 8th century BCE Urartian palace and city of Sardurihinili, and is where the best Urartian artworks were found. It was built by Sardurill in honor of the War God, Haldi. An inscription states that it arose where nothing was before – a feat made possible by the construction of the 80 km Menua irrigation canal which brought water to 5,000 hectares of land; it is still in use today, nearly 3,000 years later!

Hoshap Castle

Hoshap, meaning Beautiful Water has a castle built by the local Kurdish despot Sari Suleyman in 1643. The enormous iron doors reveal the ruins of the council room, baths, prison cells and harem. The keep has watch towers and places from where boiling hot oil was poured over the enemy.

South-Eastern Turkey


Hasankeyf was originally founded by the Romans at the eastern-most point of their empire on the banks of the Tigris. The ruins of the palace and the old city date from the 12th century when it was the Artukid Turkoman capital. Many of the ruined houses have interesting decorations, and the 15th century Zeyfelbey Turbesi is a red-brick onion-domed tomb decorated with colored tiles.

Mardin and Deyr-az-Zaferan Monastery

The view of Mardin, a picturesque hillside town with many old Arab houses, is magical. There are a few old mosques and even the odd church hidden in the backstreets. Mardin was once the home of the Syrian Orthodox (Jacobite) Church. The founder of Syrian Orthodoxy, Jacobus Baredeus, was a 6th century bishop in Edessa who rejected the belief of the two natures of Christ, emphasizing instead the oneness of the humanity and divinity. The monastery of Deyr-as-Zaferan, founded in 762, was the seat of the Syrian Orthodox patriarch from 1160 until 1922. One room contains the sedan chairs used by the patriarchs, another is their mausoleum, and in the chapel the patriarchs throne is carved with the names of all the patriarchs since 792. The history of worship at the site goes back even further, as an underground vault is said to have been used for ritual sacrifices by sun worshippers 4,000 years ago.


This city of a quarter of a million people on the banks of the Tigris claims to be one of the oldest settlements on earth, and 5,000 years ago was part of the Hurrian empire. The city’s 6km long black basalt walls are mainly Byzantine. Hasan Pasha Hanı, a striped 16th century caravanserai, is now the home of some interesting carpet and handicraft shops. Ulu Cami (1091), the oldest place of Muslim worship in Anatolia, was founded by the Seljuk Sultan Nalik Sah on the site of the Syriac Cathedral. Parts of the adjacent courtyard and the Mesudiye Medrese (1198), the first Turkish university of Anatolia, were added by the Artukids. The most fascination point to notice about these buildings is the use of pillars from former ages: each column and capital is different and Greek designs and inscriptions are found alongside decorative Arabic script. The Syrian Orthodox Church of the Virgin Mary, once part of a 17th century monastery, is also interesting to visit. If you want your wish to come true, you need to crawl 7 times under the four-legged minaret which stands in the middle of a road in the town centre.


Urfa, ancient Edessa, is important for both Christians and Muslims because of the cave where the prophet Abraham was born. Nearby is the carp-filled Pool of Abraham: according to Muslim tradition, when the Assyrian King Nemrut attempted to burn Abraham for destroying idols, God intervened, turning the fire into water and the firewood into fishes. An additional biblical connection is that the locals believe this region, on the edge of the Mesopotamian plain, was the original Garden of Eden where Adam and Eve lived.


Harran, one of the oldest settlements on earth, has been inhabited for at least 6,000 years. Abraham lived here for several years, and it prospered as an Assyrian trade colony. Under the Romans it became an important centre for learning, and after the Arab conquest, the first Islamic University was founded here. Today, it is famous for its beehive houses and the remains of its fortress.

Bald Ibis

Although the Bald Ibis is now technically extinct in the wild in Turkey, the surviving birds are bred in semi-captivity at their natural home in Birecik. The Turkish government runs this site and spends over $1,500 a month feeding them on a mixture of fat-free mince, special bird food, boiled eggs and grated carrot. For local people, the arrival of the Bald Ibis every February was a cause for celebration, and one day it is hoped that this tradition will resume. Unfortunately, as long as the birds encounter hunters and negative environmental conditions on their migration route, releasing the few remaining bird would mean complete extinction.


Gaziantep museum holds the mosaics uncovered in the last-minute excavations at the Roman city of Zeugma, a site now under the waters of the Birecik dam. Among the many mosaics on display are Zeugma’s ‘Mona Lisa’, with staring eyes that follow you wherever you go, and Achilles being recruited to fight in the Trojan War. These superlative mosaics are a wonder to behold, and one can only imagine about the other incredible mosaics that have been lost forever.


Yesemek was the stone quarry and sculpture workshop of the Hittites. It was most probably set up under Shuppiluliuma I in the 14th century BCE. Today, more than 300 finished and unfinished statues and reliefs carved out of a mauvish-grey basalt are spread over a large area. From studying these remains we know something about the sculptors’ techniques: firstly the forms were roughly chipped out, then detailed carving and polishing was carried out, and lastly the final polishing was done. No one knows what happened to these craftsmen when this vast studio was invaded by Sargon II at the start of the 8th century BCE. Maybe they were carried away to work as slaves for their new masters.

Mount Nemrut

On top of Mount Nemrut lies the final resting place of the Commagene kingdom’s most famous and egocentric ruler, Antiochus I, a tomb beneath an artificial mountain peak of piled stones. Archaeologists have yet to discover a way to open the “tomb to rival that of Tutankhamen” without destroying everything. The Eastern Terrace, from where one can watch a miraculous dawn, has five sitting statues of Antiochus I and his celestial relatives, who each represent both Greek and Persian deities. Further around, the western temple has further statues, reliefs and inscriptions, including the world’s first horoscope: that of Antiochus on the coronation of his father, Mithradates, on July 14thy 109 BCE. This site is on UNESCO’s World Heritage List.

The road up to the summit passes the Karakush (Blackbird) Tumulus of Antiochus’ wife, the 2,000 year-old Roman Cendere Bridge, and Arsameia, the ancient capital of the Commagene kingdom with the famous relief of Hercules and Mithradates I Callinicus shaking hands.


The Neo-Hittite fortress of Karatepe is second in importance only to Hattusha in terms of the reliefs and artefacts discovered. Karatepe was founded in the 8th century BCE by the Hittite King Asitawanda, who ruled the Adana plain and made Karatepe his summer home. Statues of lions and sphinxes protected the citadel, and the reliefs on display show musicians entertaining, a mother breast-feeding her baby, and even the king at dinner with a monkey under the table waiting for crumbs. The bilingual texts found here, the first examples of Hittite hieroglyphic writing, were key to deciphering Hieroglyphic Luwian.


Antakya, ancient Antioch on the Orontes, was founded in the fourth century BCE by Seleucos Nicator. By the second century BCE, it was one of the largest cities in the ancient world, with a population of over half a million. This was undoubtedly one of the reasons why Saint Peter the apostle came here with Saint Paul and Saint Barnabus to found one of the first Christian communities. The word Christian was coined in this city, and the cave church where Saint Peter preached his first sermon is still here, with a facade added in the thirteenth century by the crusaders.

Antakya’s Archaeological Museum holds the world’s best collection of Roman mosaics. They are just incredible, with subjects from abstract designs similar to those on today’s Turkish carpets to scenes from everyday life and Roman mythology, including the Rape of Ganymede, the Marriage of Tethys and Oceanus, and a rather fearsome rendition of the evil eye.

At Harbiye there is a beautiful grove with mesmerizing waterfalls. This is ancient Daphne, where Anthony and Cleopatra were married and the home of the Antioch Games, which became more famous and important than those at Olympus. One thing you won’t see is the magnificent temple of Apollo, which was dismantled by Christians who used the stones to build their churches.

The mountain-top monastery where Saint Simeon stood on his pillar has spectacular views of the sea coast, and down on the sea front, once the ancient port of Seleucia ad Pieria, is the famous Tunnel of Vespasian, a feat of engineering that prevented the harbor silting up. There’s also a unique Roman cave graveyard carved out of the rock near the tunnel.

Introduction to Cappadocia

Cappadocia is a magical and breathtaking region with its unique mix of natural geography, Anatolian history and vibrant traditional Turkish culture. The rocky fairy chimneys attest to ancient volcanic eruptions and the ravages of sun, frost, wind, and rain. Cappadocia’s history embodies the consequences of its unique Central Anatolian situation which offered both protection from and vulnerability to the various armies that swept across the region. More importantly, Cappadocia’s living culture encapsulates a tolerance of religious and cultural differences which is deeply rooted in a past where Muslims, Christians and Jews lived alongside each other in harmony for centuries.

Cappadocia Culture

Cappadocia is famous for its traditional way of life. Local women in the street still wear their traditional baggy trousers and decorative headscarves. In the countryside you may notice fields being ploughed by horses or even donkeys, and mules, donkeys and carts take the produce home. In local villages, the women bake bread in the communal oven at least once a week.

Cappadocia Rock Formations

The lunar landscape of Cappadocia is dotted with fairy chimneys, rock castles, underground cities, and cave dwellings – some of which are still lived in today. You too can stay in a cave, as many of the hotels are traditional dwellings that have been luxuriously restored.

Cappadocia History

Cappadocia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. No one knows when the underground cities were dug out – some say it was the Hittites who began the process. In more recent times, the valleys became home to Orthodox Christian monasteries, and their beautifully decorated churches are one of the regions main attractions.

Cappadocia Flora and Fauna

Wild flowers and plants are abundant, and the small fields of the local people are full of fruit trees, nut trees, and vines. Some local people collect the herbal plants to make their own medicinal teas. Birds, butterflies, gofer-type creatures, and foxes are common everywhere. The most common large bird in Cappadocia is the long-legged buzzard, whose long legs allow it to swoop and catch prey from the ground without landing.

Traditional Turkish Cuisine

There are many local restaurants with wonderful varieties of traditional Turkish cuisine. Look out for the local home-made ravioli called ‘manti’ served with yoghurt and home-made tomato sauce. You just have to try Turkish pizza, called ‘pide’, which is made from a long piece of very thin bread. Sweets include rice pudding served cold, often sprinkled with cinnamon, and asure (a-shore-ray), the oldest dessert in the world invented by Noah when his Ark came to land – it contains dried fruit, nuts, cereals and pulses.


Fottur i Cappadocia

Cappadocia Online

The Cappadocia Guide



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