SØRVEST-ASIA I BILDER OG FILM

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  • Sørvest Asia – før og nå

    Den fruktbare halvmåne er en betegnelse på et gammelt fruktbart område nord og øst for den arabiske ørken og Mesopotamia og langs Middelhavet i Sørvest-Asia. Ofte regnes også Mesopotamia-dalen og Nil-dalen under dette begrepet, men i jordbrukshistorisk forstand er fjellsonen rundt Mesopotamia en naturlig avgrensning.

    Som resultat av en rekke unike geografiske faktorer har Den fruktbare halvmåne en imponerende historie av tidlig menneskelig jordbruksaktivitet og kulturdanning.

    Foruten mange arkeologiske funnsteder med rester av skjeletter og kulturelle levninger både fra førmoderne (Homo neanderthalensis) og tidlig moderne mennesker (Homo Sapiens) , eksempelvis Kebarahulen i Israel, med senere jeger- og samlerkulturer i Pleistocen-tiden og delvis fastboende jegere og samlere i Mesolitikum-tiden (natuferne), så er området først og fremst kjent for dets funnsteder knyttet til jordbrukets opprinnelse og utvikling i Neolittikum.

    Det var her, i de skogkledde fjellskråningene i randsonen av dette området – i Israel, Libanon, Syria, Tyrkia, nordlige Irak og nordvestre Iran – at jordbruket oppsto i et økologisk avgrenset miljø. Den vestlige sonen og områdene rundt øvre Eufrat ga vekst til de første kjente neolittiske jordbruks-samfunnene med små, runde hus (ofte referert til som førkeramisk neolittisk A, som dateres til like etter 10.000 f.vt. og omfatter steder som Jeriko, som er verdens eldste by.

    Under den påfølgende PPNB fra 9 000 f.vt. utvikler disse samfunnene seg til større landsbyer med dyrking og husdyrhold som viktigste levevei, med tett bebyggelse i to-etasjers, rektangulære hus. Mennesket inngikk nå i symbiose med korn- og husdyrartene, uten mulighet til å vende tilbake til jeger- og sankersamfunnet.

    Området vest og nord for slettelandet ved Eufrat og Tigris så også framveksten av tidlige komplekse samfunn i den langt senere bronsealderen (fra ca 4 000 f.vt.). Det er også tidlige bevis for skriftkultur og tidlige statsdannelser fra samme tid i dette nordlige steppeområdet, selv om de skriftlige statsdannelsene relativt raskt flyttet sitt tyngdepunkt ned i Mesopotamia-dalen og utviklet seg der. Området har derfor hos svært mange forfattere fått betegnelsen «sivilisasjonens vugge».

    Området har opplevd en rekke omveltninger, og nye stasdannelser. Nå sist da staten Tyrkia ble dannet i etterkant av ungtyrkernes folkemord på blant annet de pontiske grekere, armenere og assyrere under den første verdenskrig. Det antas at to tredeler til tre firedeler av alle armenere i regionen døde.

    Det er nå på tide at folkemordet mot de pontiske grekere, assyrere og armenere anerkjennes, at Israels okkupasjon, bosetting og vold palestinerne opphører, samt at de ulike minoritetene i området får leve sine livi fred - uten vold og trusler fra majoritetsbefolkninger eller fra Vesten, og da spesifikt USA.

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Anatolia – kart

File:Anatolia and Europe NASA modified.PNG

Balkans

This painting is based on the early pre-Indo-European Neolithic cultures of the Balkans and Turkey, marking the development of early agriculture.

The central figure is based on an anthropomorphic pot from Hacilar in Turkey, similar to many found throughout the region. She is on a scale with the mountains, so she is both mountain and pot. She holds another, smaller pot, into which the dead, in skeleton form,  are climbing and where they seem to be having a party (this is the Balkans, and funerals are always occasions for parties). She is surrounded by artifacts from the region, which populate her world. In the upper right corner is the moon, surrounded by a crescent moon design from a painted pot. The moon is reflected in the pool in front of her, which is fed by a mountain stream, but also milk from her breast. Clay figurines of horned beasts are drinking from the pool, which is also home to the flock of waterbirds in the upper left. The flock is accompanied by another clay figure of the mother with a bird’s head in a chariot (another vessel). The clouds and rain gathering at the top of the mountain are also from the design on a painted pot, and cattle and sheep (horned beasts) graze in the background. In the front left corner more clay female figurines bake bread in a model oven found in Bulgaria. The oven echoes the form of the central figure and is another vessel which produces food for people. The bread in the foreground is used in present-day fertility rituals as observed by Matsen in Koprivshtitsa, Bulgaria. To the right is another modern harvest ritual from Koprivshtitsa, with ancient roots.

Chronology for the ancient Near East

A universally accepted chronology for the entire ancient Near East remains to be established. On the basis of the Royal Canon of Ptolemy, a second century A.D. astronomer, regnal dates can be determined with certainty in Babylonia only as far back as 747 B.C. (the accession of King Nabonassar). Through the use of excavated royal annals and chronicles, together with lists of annually appointed limmu-officials, the chronology of Assyria can be confidently extended back to 911 B.C. (the accession of King Adad-nirari II). The earliest certain link with Egypt is 664 B.C., the date of the Assyrian sack of the Egyptian capital at Thebes. Although it is often possible to locate earlier events quite precisely relative to each other, neither surviving contemporary documents nor scientific dating methods such as carbon 14, dendrochronology, thermoluminescence, and archaeoastronomy are able to provide the required accuracy to fix these events absolutely in time. The West Asian portion of the Timeline therefore employs the common practice of using, without prejudice, the so-called Middle Chronology, where events are dated relative to the reign of King Hammurabi of Babylon, which is defined as being ca. 1792–1750 B.C.

Between ca. 11,000 and 9000 B.C., hunters and gatherers settle the first permanent villages in southeastern and central Anatolia. They produce sophisticated utilitarian tools from readily available resources of animal bone and stone. Perhaps to meet the demands of a growing population, a shift to an economy based largely on farming occurs in the Neolithic period (ca. 11,000–6400 B.C.). The period is divided into an early phase without pottery and a later phase when pottery is present. Obsidian (volcanic glass) from Anatolia is widely traded across the Near East.

In the Chalcolithic period (ca. 6400–3800 B.C.) there is a continuity of Neolithic traditions with an increase in the use of copper. In the Early Bronze Age (ca. 3000–2000 B.C.), the region’s rich resources in such metals as tin and silver attract new populations, customs, and artistic styles from the surrounding regions of Mesopotamia, Syria, and the Caucasus Mountains.

Precious metals such as silver, gold, and tin attract merchants to the Anatolian plateau, particularly from the northern Mesopotamian city of Ashur. These merchants establish trading centers (karum)—such as the one at Kanesh (modern Kültepe)—and the details of their transactions are documented in cuneiform tablets, the earliest texts found in the region. During the fourteenth century, the Hittite kingdom, with its capital at Hattusha (modern Bogazköy) and religious center at Yazilikaya, creates an empire extending into northern Syria. By around 1200 B.C., Hattusha is violently destroyed and the Hittite empire collapses.

In the Caucasus, the earlier culture of Kura-Araxes gives way to the Trialeti culture, known for its particular form of burial. Large mounds with extensive underground graves contain bronze weapons, tools, and unique artifacts in gold and silver.

In Anatolia, the first millennium B.C. begins in a period of disruption and decentralization: new states form and regroup. Greek colonies are established in southern and western Anatolia and, later, on the Black Sea coasts. By the late eighth century B.C., the Neo-Assyrian empire, with its capital cities in Mesopotamia, confronts small kingdoms in both Anatolia and the Southern Caucasus, including Urartu, Phrygia, and (later) Lydia. From the mid-sixth century B.C., the area is ruled by Persian satraps (governors) as part of the vast Achaemenid empire. In 333 B.C., the armies of Alexander of Macedon launch their successful attack on the Persian empire. Within twenty years of Alexander’s death (323 B.C.), his empire is divided into four kingdoms. Control of Anatolia is divided between the Seleucids—who dominate Syria and Mesopotamia—and the Ptolemies of Egypt. Cities on the Aegean coast remain independent. By 200 B.C., Rome‘s imperial ambitions fuel eastward expansion; by the first century B.C., the remaining Hellenistic kingdoms become vassal states. Emperor Augustus annexes Anatolia to Rome.

From 25 B.C. to 235 A.D., five Roman provinces are established in Anatolia: Asia, Bithynia, Pontus, Galatia, and Cappadocia. During this period, numerous roads are built linking the highland cities to the Anatolian coast. Primarily designed for military use, they become important communication and trade routes. By the mid-third century, the expanding power of the Sasanian empire to the east, along with rebellious dynasts in the desert city of Palmyra to the south, threaten the collapse of the empire’s frontiers. In response, fortifications are hastily built around major cities. During the fourth and fifth centuries, urban life prospers with a revival of classical forms in literature and the arts, especially sculpture. Christianity becomes the official religion of the Roman empire in the fourth century, and churches and other ecclesiastical buildings are rapidly built.

Anatolia remains one of the most important territories of the Byzantine empire during this period. Eastern Anatolia becomes increasingly militarized in the 600s due to Persian and Arab invasions. The Iconoclastic controversy affects all the empire, including this region, until around 850, when Byzantium restors economic prosperity and military security. During this period, the Armenians and Georgians established themselves as relatively independent Christian states on the empire’s eastern frontier.

In Anatolia, Byzantine art and architecture flourishes, particularly in the sixth-century cities along the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts—including Ephesus, Sardis, and Aphrodisias—and in the region of Cappadocia, notable for its medieval, rock-cut structures.The period from 1000 to 1400 in Anatolia and the Caucasus is a time of Turkic and Muslim expansion at the expense of the Byzantine empire’s eastern territories. The arrival of the Crusaders from the west, especially the conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204, further undermines the civil authority of the Byzantine state. The advance of the Mongol armies from the east also fragments power in the region. Anatolia will not be reunified until the Ottoman conquests in the late fifteenth century. The plurality of the period, however, brings cross-cultural exchange and innovations in the arts as well as architecture.

During the period from 1400 to 1600 A.D., Anatolia and the Caucasus witness a shift from the earlier fragmentation (1000–1400 A.D.) to increased unification. While the Caucasian region remains independent during the earlier half of this period and then becomes a frontier zone between the Ottoman and Safavid empires, Anatolia is tied to Ottoman imperial capitals in the Balkan peninsula, Edirne (Adrianople) and Istanbul (Constantinople). With the great Ottoman expansion in the sixteenth century, Anatolia becomes part of a world empire. Earlier heterogeneity gives way to a uniquely Ottoman synthesis of different artistic traditions.

After great military successes throughout the sixteenth century, the Ottomans face a series of setbacks in the seventeenth. The siege of Vienna against the Habsburgs ends unsuccessfully in 1683, and soon afterward Hungary and Transylvania break free of the empire. In the East, parts of Iraq are lost to the Safavids. The Ottomans continue to hold onto most provinces, but locals gain greater power in determining their governors, and by the 1800s the Ottomans face a new threat in the form of Russian expansionism. The arts, however, continue to flourish and in this period are transformed under the influence of the European Baroque.

HISTORIC AGES OF ANATOLIAPALEOLITHIC AGE – Early Stone Age ( 600000 – 10000 B.C.)
MESOLITHIC AGE – Mid Stone Age ( 10000 – 8500 B.C.)
NEOLITHIC AGE – Late Stone Age ( 8500 – 5000 B.C.)
CALCOLITHIC AGE – Copper Age ( 5000 – 3000 B.C.)
BRONZE AGE ( 3000 – 2000 B.C.)
HATTI CIVILIZATION ( 2500 – 2000 B.C.)
TROY-II SETTLEMENT ( 2500 – 2000 B.C.)
HATTI and HITTITE PRINCIPALITIES PERIOD ( 2000 – 1750 B.C.)
GREAT HITTITE KINGDOM ( 1750 – 1200 B.C.)
HURRI CIVILIZATION
TROY-VI CIVILIZATION ( 1800 – 1275 B.C.)
AEGEAN MIGRATION AND INVASION FROM BALKANS ( 1200 B.C.)
THE ANATOLIAN PRINCIPALITIES DURING THE IRON AGE ( 1200 – 700 B.C.)
URARTU CIVILIZATION ( 900 – 600 B.C.)
THE CIVILIZATION OF PHRYGIA ( 750 – 300 B.C.)
LYDIA, CARIA and LYCIA CIVILIZATIONS ( 700 – 300 B.C.)
ION CIVILIZATION ( 1050 – 300 B.C.)
PERSIAN CONQUEST ( 545 – 333 B.C.)
HELLENISTIC and ROMAN AGE ( 333 B.C.-395 A.D.)
BYZANTINE CIVILIZATION ( 330 – 1453 A.D.)
SELJUK CIVILIZATION ( 1071 – 1300 A.D.)
OTTOMANS ( 1299 – 1923 A.D.)

Generel:

Pre-Pottery Neolithic, ca. 11,000–6900 b.c.

Pottery Neolithic, ca. 6900–6400 b.c.

Chalcolithic, ca. 6400–3800 b.c.

Early Bronze Age, ca. 3000–2000 b.c.

Middle Bronze Age, ca. 2000–1600 b.c.

Late Bronze Age, ca. 1600–1200 b.c.

Iron Age, from ca. 1200 b.c.

Anatolia West:

Trojan Early Bronze Age, ca. 3000–1900 b.c.

Kingdom of Ahhiyawa, mid–2nd millennium b.c.

Aegean settlements, 16th century b.c.

Kingdom of Arzawa, ca. 1500–1325 b.c.

Invasions of the “Sea Peoples”, ca. 1200 b.c.

Greek colonization, ca. 1000–700 b.c.

Achaemenid empire, ca. 559–331 b.c.

Alexandrian empire, 334–ca. 301 b.c.

Seleucid empire, ca. 305–60 b.c.

Roman empire, 27 b.c.–330 a.d.

Anatolia Central:

Çatal Höyük, ca. 6900–6500 b.c.

Hattian culture, ca. 2350–2150 b.c.

Assyrian Trading Colony period, ca. 1950–1750 b.c.

Hittite Old Kingdom, ca. 1680–1450 b.c.

Kingdom of Kizzuwatna, ca. 1650–1450 b.c.

Kingdom of Mtanni, ca. 1500–1400 b.c.

Hittite Middle Kingdom, ca. 1450–1380 b.c.

Hittite empire, ca. 1380–1200 b.c.

Neo-Hittite kingdoms, ca. 1200–800 b.c.

Phrygian kingdom, ca. 800–700 b.c.

Lydian kingdom, ca. 685–547 b.c.

Seleucid empire, ca. 305–60 b.c.

Roman Republic, 133–27 b.c.

Roman empire, 27 b.c.–330 a.d.

Roman empire, 27 b.c.–330 a.d.

Anatolia East:

Halaf culture, ca. 6000–5500 b.c.

Ubaid culture, 5000–4200 b.c.

Kura-Araxes culture (Early Transcaucasian Culture), ca. 3500–2200 b.c.

Amuq G, H, I, J, ca. 3100–2000 b.c.

Trialeti culture, ca. 2200–1500 b.c.

Neo-Assyrian empire, ca. 883–612 b.c.

Urartian kingdom, ca. 830–640 b.c.

Median empire, ca. 614–550 b.c.

Achaemenid empire, ca. 559–331 b.c.

Alexandrian empire, 334–ca. 301 b.c.

Seleucid empire, ca. 305–60 b.c.

Many small areas of local rule, ca. 300–130 b.c.

Roman empire, 27 b.c.–330 a.d.

Caucasus:

Shulaveri-Shomu culture, ca. 6000–4000 b.c.

Kura-Araxes culture (Early Transcaucasian Culture), ca. 4000–2200 b.c

Maikop culture, ca. 3500?–2000 b.c.?

Trialeti culture, ca. 2200–1500 b.c.

Tribal groups including the Sarmatians and the Alans, ca. 1–500 a.d.

Caucasus North:

Middle Kuban culture, ca. 2000–1200 b.c.

Kayakent-Khorochoi culture, ca. 2000–1000 b.c.

Late Kuban culture, ca. 1200–650 b.c.

Koban culture, ca. 1100–700 b.c.

Steppe nomads (Cimmerians/Scythians/Sarmatians), ca. 700 b.c.

Caucasus South:

Trialeti culture, ca. 2200–1500 b.c.

Painted pottery cultures, ca. 2000–1500 b.c.

Many located Late Bronze-Early Iron Age assemblages, ca. 1500–1000 b.c.

Urartian kingdom, ca. 830–640 b.c.

Orontid dynasty, 6th–1st century b.c.

Kindgom of Egrisi (Colchis), 6th–1st century b.c.

Achaemenid empire, ca. 559–331 b.c.

Alexandrian empire, 334–ca. 301 b.c.

Seleucid empire, ca. 305–60 b.c.

Kingdom of Kartli (Iberia), 3rd–1st century b.c.

Arsacid (Parthian) kings, 12–63 a.d.

MER: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

Timelines

Cappadocia

Turkification

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anatolia turkey culture kusadasi, History of Anatolia, Wet Winters virgin marys route to kusadasi Two Continents Turkey Trojan War The Anatolian peninsula (also called Asia Minor) Suspension Bridges Summer Rainfall Strait Of Bosporus Shallow Valleys samos pictures Ottoman Neopolis of Asia minor modern Turkey Minor Asia Mediterranean Sea Mediterranean Climate Mediterranean Marmara Sea Lydia Kusadasi Hotels Kusadasi is kusadasi a costal town impact of Mediterranean climate in ancient Greece history of anatolia Greek Rule Greek Colonies Greek greece Cyrus The Great Of Persia Climate Type civilizations Central Plateau Bosporus Atlas Ataturk Asia Minor Climates Asia Minor Arid Plateau ancient mediterranean climate Ancient Civilizations Anatolie Anatolia agri Aegean Sea

aznatol_1

File:Hittite Empire.png

File:Anatolia Ancient Regions base.svg


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